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Secured Wireless Communication For Industrial Automation and Control.

Platform : ieee embedded projects

IEEE Projects Years : 2012

Abstract--Wireless based industrial automation is a prime
concern in our day-to-day life. The approach to Zigbee Based
Wireless Network for Industrial Applications standardized
nowadays. In this paper, we have tried to increase these
standards by combining new design techniques to wireless
industrial automation. The personal computer based wireless
network for industrial application using Zigbee can be adopted
at micro and macro Industries, it has various types of
Processors and Microcontrollers. Here Microcontrollers,
Temperature Sensors, Zero crossing detector, Voltage
regulators are used. The system is fully controlled by the
Personal Computer through Visual Basics GUI (Graphical
User Interface).The GUI is developed based on application by
the user. All the processor and controllers are interconnected
to personal computer through Zigbee. The Personal Computer
will continuously monitor all the Data from remote processing
unit and compare with value preloaded process structure. If
any error is found the personal computer takes necessary
action. Here star topology four node Zigbee network is tried.
The first Zigbee is connected to the personal computer it acts
as full function devices and is used to send and receive data
from other nodes. The second, third and fourth Zigbee are
reduced function devices and they are used to control the
speed of DC motor, temperature control and lamp illumination
control respectively. All the Zigbee’s are interconnected with
processing unit through RS232 protocol.
Keywords: Wireless Communication; Zigbee Network;
Secured data transmission; Dual bridge D.C Motor Control;
Closed loop temperature control; Illumination control using
In recent years, wireless sensor networks have become
widely spread in many areas including industrial data
transfer and process control applications. Some of these
applications outgrow the traditional communication model
applied to wireless sensor networks according to which data
is flowing towards a single receiver (sink). In the case of
industrial data acquisition systems more than one receiver is
a viable model.
The Unique characteristics of a wireless sensor
networks are
• Limited power they can harvest or store
• Ability to withstand harsh environmental
• Ability to cope with node failures
• Mobility of nodes
• Dynamic network topology
• Communication failures
• Heterogeneity of nodes
• Large scale of deployment
• Unattended operation
• Node capacity is scalable, only limited by
bandwidth of gateway node.
Here we examine the details on data broadcast
algorithms for the 802.15.4 based Zigbee network standard
and their applicability[1]. Zigbee network is used to creating
control networks for power electronics and drives
applications. Special focus is given on transmitting and
receiving data from multiple Zigbee transreceivers by using
suitable Zigbee and power electronics components.
Figure 1. Block Diagram of the overall system
In this paper, it is proposing employ Zigbee transmit and
receive data between computer and microcontrollers. Figure
1 shown that four independent Zigbee trans receiver star
network, which is used to control the direction and speed of
two DC motors through Dual H-Bridge converter[2][3],
Illumination control through TRIAC[4] and closed loop
water path temperature control[5]. One Zigbee is connected
to personal computer which is used to receive and transmit
data from the remaining three Zigbees.
All Zigbees are communicating to external devices
through serial port by using RS232 protocol [6]. User can
control and monitor the entire network by using computer
and Visual Basic based GUI.
Dept.of.EEE Dept.of.E&I Bharath University
BIST,Bharath University BIST , B harath University Chennai
S. Palanisamy S. Senthil Kumar J. Lakshmi Narayanan
Chennai,India. Chennai,India. Tamil Nadu, India.
Asst.Professor BIST,
978-1-4244-8679-3/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
Wireless communication is the transfer of information
over a distance without the use of electrical conductors or
wires. The distances involved may be short (a few meters as
in television remote control) or long (thousands or millions
of kilometers for radio communications).It encompasses
various types of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios,
cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and
wireless networking. Here we use the wireless network for
industrial data communication.
A. Zigbee Protocol
Zigbee is a wireless network protocol specifically
designed for low data rate sensors and control networks. The
applications that can benefit from the Zigbee protocol are
building automation networks, home security systems,
industrial control networks, patient monitoring, remote
metering etc .
Zigbee uses the IEEE 802.15.4 physical and MAC layers
to provide standard-based, reliable wireless data transfer[7].
Zigbee adds network structure, routing, and security to
complete the communication suite. On top of this wireless
engine, Zigbee profiles provide target applications with the
interoperability and intercompatibility required to allow
similar products from different manufacturers to work
seamlessly. IEEE 802.15.4 provides three frequency bands
for communications.
Zigbee also uses a DSSS radio signal in the 868 MHz
band (Europe), 915 MHz band (North America), and the 2.4
GHz ISM band (available worldwide). In the 2.4-GHz ISM
band sixteen channels are defined; each channel occupies 3
MHz and channels are centered 5 MHz from each other,
giving a 2-MHz gap between pairs of channels.
Zigbee uses an 11-chip PN code, with 4 information bits
encoded into each symbol giving it a maximum data rate of
128 Kbps. The physical and MAC layers are defined by the
IEEE 802.15.4 Working Group and share many of the same
design characteristics as the IEEE 802.11b standard.
B. Zigbee Protocol Features
• Low duty cycle - provides long battery life
• Low latency
• Support for multiple network topologies: static,
dynamic, star and mesh
• Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
• Up to 65,000 nodes on a network
• 128-bit AES encryption - provides secure
connections between devices
• Collision avoidance
• Link quality indication
• Clear channel assessment
• Retries and acknowledgements
• Support for guaranteed time slots
Figure 2. Zigbee protocols stack.
C. Collision Avoidance
Zigbee specifies a collision-avoidance algorithm similar
to 802.11b, each device listens to the channel before
transmitting in order to minimize the frequency of collisions
between Zigbee devices. Zigbee does not change channels
during heavy interference, instead it relies upon its low duty
cycle and collision-avoidance algorithms to minimize data
loss caused by collisions. If Zigbee uses a channel that
overlaps a heavily used Wi-Fi channel up to 20% of all
Zigbee packets will be retransmitted due to packet collisions.
An evaluating hardware was developed with Maxstreem,
xbee pro Zigbee module, it consumes only 2mW and 1.25
mW power at active and sleep mode. It is compatible to
transfer data upto 400 Meter range at 250Kbps. Zigbee pro
communicate based on DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum) and it’s very suitable to Mesh, point-to-point and
point-to-multipoint networks. it also gives 3V CMOS UART
option to interface External devices
like,microcontroller,sensors and etc.Xbee pro manufacturer
provide XTU software package to programme the xbee
Figure 3. Photo images of Zigbee Module
Here P89V51RD2 microcontroller is used to process
individual systems and personal computer is used in
monitoring and control station[8][9]. Both of the
microcontrollers and personal computer are interfaced with
Zigbee module through UART port.L298 dual full-bridge
driver is used to control the speed, direction of DC motors
and also it saves motor from high current and short circuits.
LM 741 based Zero crossing detector circuit is used to
find zero crossing time of input supply For incandescent
lamp illumination control.The control programme is
developed based on the zero crossing time and percentage of
illumination . The role of Microcontroller is to generate
firing pulse for TRIAC and communicating control and
monitoring unit through Zigbee module based on user input.
Figure 4. Complete circuit diagram of Speed and Direction control of DC
Figure 5.Photoimage of working model.
Figure 6.Firing pulse to L298 Dual bridge at 25%, 50%,75% and 100%
Figure 7 .D.C motor Speed vs Time.
Figure 8.Zigbee data transfer rate vs Distance in meter.
When the control commands are received from the
monitoring station, immediately microcontroller process the
command and give respective control signal to associately
connected power module. Here we are using L298 dual H
bridge controller for controlling D.C motor.The ‘TRIAC’ for
controlling incandescent lamp and electromagnetic relay for
controlling a heater.
The total time taken to complete the user command is the
sum of transmitting time(tr) and delay time (td) is shown in
the Figure 7 and the graph between time and motor
speed.Transmission time occurred due to transmission of
data between Zigbees.Delay time is occurred due to slow
response of the microcontroller. Delay time can be
minimized by selecting a high speed controller. The
transmission time based on environment and distance
between the transreceiver.
Rate of data transmission and distance between the
transreceivers is shown in the Figure 8.It’s clearly shows that
the data transmission decreases when the distance between
the two transreceivers will increase.
Industrial users should consider the type of monitoring
and control applications that are suitable for LR-WPAN
technology such as Zigbee. Reliability, security and
performance are potential challenges when designing and
deploying wireless technologies and factors such as
EMI/RFI and multi-path fading in industrial environments
can be specific issues to consider. Zigbee provides proper
network topology, and it overcomes all problems in
industries caused due to environmental issues[10]. We tested
Zigbee networks in various environmental conditions by
using four node star network for industrial applications like
speed and direction control of D.C motor, Illumination
control of incandescent lamp and closed loop water path
temperature control. It was seen that error free proper
communication was established between the processing unit
and monitoring unit. In future we can also test other Zigbee
networks for proper wireless data communication.
[1] Alliance. Cheng B., Kumar K., Reddy M., Welsh M., 2006, Ad-Hoc
Multicast routing on Ressource Limited.Sensor Nodes, In Proc. Of
the International Symp. On Mobile and Ad-Hoc Networking and
Computing, pp.87-94. Lorincz K., Malan D., Fulford-Jones
T.R.F., Nawoj A., Clavel A., Schnayder V., Mainland G., Moulton S.
and Welsh M., 2004, Sensor Networks for Emergency Response:
Challenges and Opportunities, In IEEE Pervasive Computing.
[2] El Din, A.S.Z. Dept. of Electr. Eng., Minoufiya Univ.; PLCBased
Speed Control of DC Motor, Power Electronics and Motion
Control Conference, 2006. IPEMC 2006. CES/IEEE 5th International
Publication Date: 14-16 Aug. 2006 Volume: 2, On page(s): 1-6
Location: Shanghai, ISBN: 1-4244-0448-7.
[3] A.Dell Aquila, M. Liserre, V.G. Monopoli, P. Rotondo, "An energybased
control for an n-H-bridges multilevel active rectifier," IEEE
Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 670- 678, June
[4] Nang Kaythi Hlaing and Lwin Lwin Oo,” Microcontroller-based
single-phase automatic voltage regulator” International Conference
on Computer Science and Information Technology (ICCSIT),
Chengdu.P.P 222 - 226 September 2010.
[5] S. Kaliyugavaradan.“A microcontroller-based program-mable
temperature controller” 23rd International Conference on Industrial
Electronics, Control and Instrumentation, vol.1 P.P 155 – 158,
August 2002.
[6] Christopher E. Strangio “The RS232 Standard Tutorial” Downloaded
from Data_Com_Basics
/RS232_standard.html (Date 03/09/2009).
[7] Maxim Osipov ”Home Automation with Zigbee” Next Generation
Telegraphic and Wired/Wireless Advanced Networking 8 th
International Conference, NEW2AN and 1st Russian Conference on
Smart Spaces, SMART 2008 St. Petersburg, Russia, September 3-5,
[8] Craig Steiner”8051 Programming Tutorial”Downloaded
from (Date 27/08/2009).
[9] Muhammad Ali Mazidi, Janice Mazidi and Janice Gillispie Mazidi”A
text book of 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded Systems”
Publication: Prentice Hall; Har/Dsk edition (November 11, 1999),
ISBN-13: 978-0138610227.
[10] S. Ananthi, R. Hariprakash, V.Vidya Devi and K. Padmanabhan
“Spread Spectrum Communication Using Wavelets of Signal for
More Security”, Proc. of the Advanced International conf. on
Telecommunications, (AICT/ICIW2006), pp. 87,19-25 Feb’ 06 at
Guadelope, (0-7695-2522-9/06 © 2006 IEEE).






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