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AN EFFICIENT ADAPTIVE DEADLOCK-FREE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR TORUS NETWORKS

Platform : DOT NET

IEEE Projects Years : 2012 - 13

AN EFFICIENT ADAPTIVE DEADLOCK-FREE ROUTING ALGORITHM

FOR TORUS NETWORKS

ABSTRACT:

A deadlock-free minimal routing algorithm called clue is first proposed for VCT (virtual cut-through)-switched tori. Only two virtual channels are required. One channel is applied in the deadlock-free routing algorithm for the mesh sub network based on a known base routing scheme, such as, negative-first or dimension-order routing. The other channel is similar to an adaptive channel. This combination presents a novel fully adaptive minimal routing scheme because the first channel does not supply routing paths for every source-destination pair. Other two algorithms named flow controlled clue and wormhole clue are proposed.

EXISTING SYSTEM:

Existing fat-tree routing algorithms fully exploit the path diversity of a fat-tree topology in the context of compute node traffic, but they lack support for deadlock free and fully connected switch-to-switch communication. Such support is crucial for efficient system management, for example in InfiniBand (IB) systems. With the general increase in system management capabilities found in modern InfiniBand switches, the lack of deadlock free switch-to-switch communication is a problem for fat-tree based IB installations because management traffic might cause routing deadlocks that bring the whole system down. This lack of deadlock free communication affects all system management and diagnostic tools using LID routing. In this paper, we propose the sFtree routing algorithm that guarantees deadlock free and fully connected switch-to-switch communication in fat-trees while maintaining the properties of the current fat-tree algorithm

PROPOSED SYSTEM:

Flow controlled clue is proposed for VCT-switched tori, which is fully adaptive minimal deadlock-free with no virtual channel. Each input port requires at least two buffers, each of which is able to keep a packet. A simple but well-designed flow control function is used in the proposed flow controlled clue routing algorithm to avoid deadlocks. Wormhole clue is proposed for wormhole-switched tori. It is partially adaptive because we add some constraints to the adaptive channels for deadlock avoidance. It is shown that clue and flow controlled clue work better than the bubble flow control scheme under several popular traffic patterns in 3-dimensional (3D) torus. In wormhole-switched tori, the advantage of wormhole clue over Duato’s protocol is also very apparent.

HARDWARE & SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • System                                    :           Pentium IV 2.4 GHz.
  • Hard Disk                   :           40 GB.
  • Monitor                       :           15 VGA Colour.
  • Mouse                         :           Logitech.
  • Ram                             :           256 Mb.

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:

  • Operating system        : -         Windows XP Professional.
  • Front End                    : -         Visual Studio 2008.
  • Coding Language       : -         Visual C# .Net.

MODULES:

  1. GENERAL ROUTING ALGORITHM.
  2. ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR 2D TORI.
  3. FLOW CONTROLLED CLUE METHOD.
  4. DEADLOCK-FREEDOM METHOD.

MODULE DESCRIPTION:

GENERAL ROUTING ALGORITHM:

All links in an n _ D torus are classified into mesh sub network links and wraparound links. In clue, two virtual channels (R1 and R2) are enough to provide deadlock-free fully adaptive minimal routing in a VCTswitched n _ D torus.

 

Rule 1: A packet can request R1 channels at any time.

 

Rule 2: If a packet need not traverse any wraparound link from the current node to the destination, it can request R2 channels of the mesh sub network links. If a packet is routed on R2 channels, it must conform to deadlock-free minimal routing restrictions for meshes such as by negative-first or Dimension-order routing.

 

Rule 3: If the next hop of a packet can traverse a wraparound link of dimension d and d is the lowest of the dimensions in which the packet needs to traverse, the packet can request the R2 channel of that wraparound link.

ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR 2D TORI:

The dimension-order routing algorithm is applied on R2 channels of the mesh sub network links. When a packet traverses from the source A to the destination H. The routing algorithm in a 2D torus is stated as follows: Because this algorithm is fully adaptive, packets can be routed along any minimal routing path. We just arbitrarily specifies a routing path and states in this path which channel or channels can be requested.

 

 A -> B, the packet need traverse two wraparound links from the source A to the destination H, where dimension x is the lowest dimension along which the packet need traverse a wraparound link. From Rule 1 and Rule 3, either R1 or R2 can be selected;

 

 B -> C, the packet need traverse a wraparound link from B to H, while dimension y is the lowest dimension along which the packet need traverse a wraparound link. From Rule 1 and Rule 3 we know that, either R1 or R2 can be selected.

 

C -> E; F -> G; G -> H, the packet need traverse no wraparound link from the current SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection("Data Source=.;Initial Catalog=emp;Integrated Security=True");node to the destination H. These hops follow the dimension order algorithm. As stated in Rule 2, R2 channels can be selected in these cases. R1 can also be selected. Therefore, either R1 or R2 can be selected;

 

 E -> F, the packet need traverse no wraparound link from E to H. This hop does not follow the dimension-order algorithm. From Rule 1 and Rule 2,

R2 channel cannot be selected in this hop; only R1 channel can be selected.

 


DEADLOCK-FREEDOM METHOD:

A packet is delivered in the mesh sub network when it need not traverse any wraparound link from the current node to the destination. Only at this time it could request R2 channels of the mesh sub network links. A deadlock-free routing algorithm for the mesh sub network is applied on R2 channels with the dimension order routing, the west-first routing, or the negative-first routing scheme. Therefore, the packet would not be blocked forever. The packet could always be delivered along R2 channels until reaching the destination.

FLOW CONTROLLED CLUE:

To propose a new fully adaptive routing algorithm, named flow controlled clue, for n _ D tori. The input buffers of flow controlled clue are organized as dynamically allocated multi queues. Two queues instead are needed to avoid deadlocks. Its performance is even better. Two classes of packets, safe and unsafe packets, are defined in flow controlled clue. Based on a routing algorithm R for the mesh sub network of an n _ D torus, a packet is safe to the downstream node in either one of the following conditions:

 

The next hop of the packet is to traverse a wraparound link along dimension d, and d is the lowest of the dimensions along which the packet need traverse wraparound links. The packet does not need to traverse any wraparound link from the current node to the destination. The next hop is to reserve a link in the mesh sub network according to the routing function R.

 

 

 



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